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To investigate the reason for this threshold, we focus on two extreme intensity cases, SHW±40% within ORCA05. The Agulhas system, forming part of the subtropical gyres of the South Atlantic and South Indian Oceans ( Jimmy choo Cloth Ankle Boots gqQHx
) and bounded by the Antarctic Circumpolar Current, potentially could be influenced by numerous external factors. In an attempt to therefore distinguish between local and large-scale wind impact on leakage, a geographical decomposition of the SHW±40% experiments was performed ( Figs. 4a–c ). We favored the use of the coarse-resolution ORCA05 model because it is computationally less demanding. The response shown in Fig. 6c reveals that the overall leakage response consists of the direct influence of the westerlies acting locally (over the Agulhas retroflection and Cape Basin region) on the magnitude of the leakage and on the indirect influence of the winds via the adjacent currents. INALT01, the configuration that mimics the known complexity of the Agulhas system with the highest degree of semblance, reproduces the general behavior in leakage. Leakage response within INALT01−SHW+40% with LOCAL decomposition shows that, despite the overestimation of absolute leakage values within the coarse-resolution model, the change in leakage is consistent. The decompositions further indicate that the threshold in leakage change originates from the large-scale circulation, within which the Agulhas system is embedded.

This hypothesis is tested by employing the regional model, AGIO, whose domain excludes much of the large-scale circulation (Loveday et al. 2013, manuscript submitted to J. Phys. Oceanogr. ). The global ocean influences this regional model through lateral boundary conditions derived from climatology of the ORCA05−REF simulation. Here, leakage response is quasi linear, monotonously increasing with strengthening westerlies ( Fig. 6b ). This suggests that, with a constant climatological representation of large-scale circulation, in particular that of the Southern Ocean, the portion of the westerlies felt within AGIO's southern domain (35°–48°S) does not cause a threshold in leakage response. Altering the boundary conditions to that derived from the ORCA05−SHW+40% experiment (red cross in Fig. 6b ), effectively allows for an assessment of the influence a different Southern Ocean state has on leakage. In this case, leakage behavior is similar to that of the two global models, supporting the hypothesis that the threshold observed in leakage ( Fig. 6b ) originates from the large-scale circulation.

4. Agulhas leakage transient response to increased westerlies

For the purpose of exploring the time dependency of Agulhas leakage response to increased westerlies, we focus on the SHW+40% case and expand the ORCA05 simulations to beyond the 10 years of common analysis. Figure 7 shows the time evolution of leakage and other parameters associated with the greater Agulhas system. Presented are the annual values beginning from model year 31, which is when the anomaly fields are applied. Linear trends calculated from the reference experiment were removed from all runs. Under background climatological forcing, these minor trends (between 0.1% and 2.5% decade −1 of the reference values) represent the inherent numerical drift that can reasonably be assumed to be similar in all simulations. The BASIN and LOCAL decompositions are overlaid. Following a fast initial adjustment, three distinct stages in leakage behavior in the ORCA05−SHW+40%−FULL case (red curve on IRIS amp; INK Woman Cassia Metallic Leather Slingback Pumps Size 40 GPkCo0o
) can be noted: (i) A proportional increase (model year 34–47) followed by (ii) a rapid decline (model year 47–50), and finally (iii) return to and decadal modulation around reference values (beyond model year 50).

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Chapter 8: Defensive Driving


Note: Practice quizzes are available only for those sections of the manual covering rules of the road (Chapters 4 through 11 and Road Signs).

Most drivers are good drivers. But even the best drivers make errors now and then. Equipment fails, weather conditions can be bad, and some drivers ignore traffic laws or drive in an erratic manner. To prevent making errors or being involved in a crash because of someone else's error, learn to drive in a defensive manner.


You should sit in a comfortable, but vertical position, and keep both hands on the steering wheel. Slouching in the driver's seat or using only one hand on the wheel makes it more difficult or even dangerous to control your vehicle.

Traffic conditions change continuously. Always scan the road ahead. Do not use the road or even the vehicle ahead as your only points of focus. Look ahead so you can prevent, or decrease, possible problems.

Keep your eyes moving, notice what is happening at the sides of the road, and check behind you through your mirrors every few seconds.

Anticipate errors by other drivers, bicyclists and pedestrians and think about what you will do if an error occurs. Do not assume that a driver who approaches a STOP or YIELD sign on a side road is actually going to stop or yield. It is better to assume the other driver will not stop.


A distraction is anything that takes your attention away from driving. Distracted driving can cause crashes, resulting in injury, death, or property damage. Taking your eyes off the road or hands off the steering wheel presents obvious driving risks. Mental activities that take your mind away from driving are just as dangerous.

When driving:

You must pay attention to the driving task. You are responsible for operating your vehicle in a safe manner.


Aggressive driving includes speeding, which often leads to following too closely, frequent or quick lane changes without a signal, passing on the shoulder or parts of the roadway that are not paved or being a nuisance to motorists, bicyclists or pedestrians, who don't get out of the way. Aggressive drivers sometimes run stop signs and red lights, pass stopped school buses, fail to keep right, drive while impaired by alcohol or drugs and drive in a reckless manner. Some aggressive drivers try to cause damage to another driver, and that is how aggressive driving becomes road rage.

To prevent road rage, it is sometimes better not to make eye contact with another driver. The other driver can take this as being challenged.

When an aggressive driver confronts you:

To avoid becoming an aggressive driver:

If you have the right-of-way, do not think of it as a complete right. Be prepared to yield the right-of-way to other highway users. To wait a few seconds for another driver is far better than to risk a crash.


What is "road rage"? Road rage is an angry, hostile state which can increase into violent criminal actions, or attempts of violent actions, that result from the operation of a motor vehicle. Road rage can include behavior to provoke others or to make them fearful.

Aggressive driving is not road rage. However, aggressive driving can become road rage. Aggressive driving generally involves the violation of a traffic safety law, while road rage involves the breaking of a criminal law.

Who can become road raged? It could happen to anyone when our irritation or anger with others leads us to behavior that is a threat to ourselves and to the safety and lives of others on and near the road or highways. To endanger, threaten or assault another person is illegal. These behaviors can result in severe penalties that include fines, imprisonment and court-ordered probation. They can also mean revocation and suspension of a driver license.

Road rage can include:

Research indicates that being in a state of rage can affect your blood pressure and your ability to reason and make decisions. As a driver, you will make more errors. The chance of being involved in a traffic crash will increase.

Aggressive driving and road rage can lead to revoked or suspended driver licenses, problems between family members and friends, loss of employment and legal problems.

Many drivers do not recognize when their own aggressive driving or their own road rage is affecting their ability to drive safely. State law requires every DMV-approved accident prevention course to address the hazards and dangers of road rage. For information about DMV-approved accident prevention courses, go to the DMV website at Point and Insurance Reduction Program .You can also contact one of the program sponsors. Information is available at any state or county motor vehicle office.


You must obey the speed limit. If no limit is posted, drive no more than 55 mph (88 km/h). Often, it is common sense to keep your actual speed below the posted limit. For example, the legal limit on a slippery or fogged-in expressway might be 55 mph (), or even 65 mph (), but the safe speed to drive would be much lower. Even if you were to drive at 50 mph () on that hazardous highway, a police officer could ticket you for a speed "not reasonable" for the conditions.

To keep a smooth traffic flow, some highways also have minimum speed limits. If you drive slower than the minimum speed you can halt the traffic flow and create a dangerous condition. Even if there is no minimum speed limit, those driving too slow can be as dangerous as those who drive too fast.

Know that some cities have speed limits less than 55 mph (88 km/h) that are not be always posted. For example, the speed limit is 25 mph (48 km/h) in New York City unless another limit is posted.


Four of every 10 crashes involve rear-end collisions, normally because a person is following too closely (tailgating). Leave enough room between your vehicle and the one ahead so you can stop safely if the other vehicle stops suddenly. Brake early and gently when you prepare to stop or turn. It gives drivers behind you plenty of warning that you plan to decrease your speed.

For a good "space cushion," use the two-second rule: Select an object near or above the road ahead like a sign, tree or overpass. As the vehicle ahead passes it, count slowly, "one thousand one, one thousand two." If you reach the same object before you finish the count, you are following too closely. In bad weather and when following large trucks, increase the count to at least three or four seconds for additional space.

If a driver follows you too closely (tailgates) move to another lane if possible, or reduce speed and pull off the road to let the driver go by. Make sure to signal when you drive off the road and when you return to it. Do not press your brakes suddenly or unnecessarily as this may startle the motorist behind you and could escalate into road rage.

In case you must change lanes quickly or pull over to avoid a hazard, leave some "escape" room to your left and right.


Seat belts save lives and can prevent serious injuries in traffic crashes. This iswhy New York State requires seat belt use by adults in motor vehicles and seat belts,booster seats or child safety seats for children

New York is a "primary enforcement" state. A law enforcement officer can issue a traffic ticket for failure to wear a seat belt. This law also applies to visitor from outside New York State.

Highlights of the New York State occupant restraint law:

Every passenger under age 16 must use a safety restraint. If under age 4, persons must be correctly secured in a government approved child safety seat that is attached to a vehicle by a safety belt or universal anchorage (LATCH) system. A child under age 4 who weighs more than 40 pounds can be restrained in a booster seat with a lap and shoulder belt. A child of age 4, 5, 6 or 7 must use a booster seat with lap and shoulder belt or a child safety seat (The child safety restraint system must meet the height and weight recommendations of the restraint manufacturer.)

Exception: A child more than 4 feet 9 inches in height or weighing more than 100 pounds is allowed to use a seat belt that has both a lap belt and a shoulder harness. If the seat belt does not fit correctly, the child must use a booster seat with a lap and shoulder belt.

When you drive, you must make sure each person in your vehicle is properly restrained by a seat belt, child restraint system or car seat. During a crash, a person not properly restrained becomes a flying object and a danger to each person in the vehicle.



Areas where road work takes place are dangerous to drive in -- and to work in. That is why when you speed in work zones, ticket fines double, even when the workers or work vehicles are not there. Expect to find a work zone wherever you drive - you may have to decrease speed quickly or even stop. Traffic lanes can shift or be completely closed. Workers and work vehicles can be on or near your driving lane. When you drive in a work zone, make it safer because you know what to do.

Orange signs in the shape of diamonds -- "work zone" warning signs – are often placed before road construction projects and other work areas that can change traffic flow. One sign can read: "flagger ahead.” A flagger is a worker who motions for you to stop, continue with caution or change lanes. A flagger has the same authority as a sign, which indicates you can receive a ticket for disobeying their directions.

Decrease speed! Be Alert! Obey the signs!

Work Zone Tips:


A "roundabout" is a round intersection with a small diameter that makes drivers decrease speed, normally to 30 mph or less. Studies show a roundabout can reduce the number and severity of accidents at an intersection, compared to intersections controlled by stop signs or traffic signals. Roundabouts, or rotaries, are now more common in New York State and other states.

When using roundabouts or traffic circles:


Driving and sleep do not mix. When you are behind the wheel of a car or truck, fatigue is dangerous. If you are tired when driving you are slower to react, and are not as aware as you should be and your judgment will be impaired. As with drugs and alcohol, drowsiness can contribute to a traffic crash.

Symptoms of Fatigue — Researchers have found the following symptoms to be associated with drowsy driving:

Who is Most At Risk? All Drivers who are:

Effective Countermeasures

Prevention — Before you embark on a trip, you should:

Actions for the Drowsy Driver — Once driving, you must:

NOTE: See Jimmy choo Womens Jennie Ballet Flat 4NCzNKu
for more information about the dangers of driving under the influence of alcohol and other drugs.


A driver can become distracted from safe driving by use of a mobile telephone (like a cellular telephone). In New York State, it is a traffic infraction to speak into or listen to a hand-held mobile telephone while driving. For a first offense you could pay a fine up to $200 and receive five license points. The phone may be hand-held to activate, begin, or end a call. Exemptions are provided for calls for emergency situations, for police and other law enforcement officers and for fire department personnel and operators of authorized emergency vehicles in the performance of official duties. In New York State, a hands-free mobile telephone allows the user to communicate without the use of either hand. A driver can use a hands-free telephone at any time.

Penalties for texting, electronic device use

In New York State, it is illegal to use portable electronic devices, such as cell phones and smart phones, to send or receive text messages or e-mails while driving. The penalty for a first offense is a fine of up to $200. A second offense (both committed within 18 months) is a fine up to $250. A third or subsequent offense (all committed within 18 months) is a fine up to $450. Also, drivers with probationary and junior licenses who use a hand-held phone or text while driving will receive a 120-day suspension for a first conviction and a revocation of at least one year for subsequent convictions within six months of the time a license is restored after suspension.


No person shall operate or park a vehicle on public highways unless it has beeninspected at least once a year, but that does not mean it is the only time you should have safety equipment checked. Follow your owner's manual for routine maintenance. Have problems corrected by a qualified mechanic as soon as possible. Do not wait until mechanical problems cause breakdowns or crashes.

Pay special attention to the maintenance and repair of the brakes, steering mechanism, lights, tires and horn. Depend on your owner's manual and an experienced mechanic as keys to a safe vehicle.It is the operator’s responsibility to ensure that the vehicle being driven is safe.

Here are some common problems and some equipment checks you can do.


Before you move on to Chapter 9, make sure you can answer these questions:

End of Chapter 8: Forest Grove ShoesMens Originals kDCzojWx9

< Chapter 7 | Contents | Chapter 9 >


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